Mon State

mon State

mon State is a state in western Myanmar. The 36,019-square-kilometre (13,907 sq mi) mon State is bordered by Rakhine State in the south, Bangladesh in the south-west, Sagaing Division and Magway Division in the east, the Indian state of Manipur in the north and the Indian state of Mizoram in the west. The population of mon state is about 478,801 in 2014 census. The capital of the state is Hakha. The state is a mountainous region with few transportation links. mon State is sparsely populated and remains one of the least developed areas of the country. mon State has the highest poverty rate of 73% as per the released figures from the first official survey.

History Of mon State

Early History

The mon people entered the mon Hills in the first millennium AD as part of the wider migration of mon peoples into the area. For much of history, the sparsely populated mon Hills were ruled by local chiefs, such as Tlaisun and Zahau chiefs in the mid-land (present Falam area), Guite and Sukte chiefs in the north (present Tedim, Tonzang, and Lamka areas), Hakha and Zote chiefs in the south (present Hakha and Thantlang areas), and Sailo and Hualngo chiefs in the Lushai hill.

Some historians (Arthur Phayre, Tun Nyein) put Pateikkaya in eastern Bengal, thus placing the entire mon Hills under Pagan suzerainty but others, like Harvey, citing stone inscriptions, put it near the eastern mon Hills. (Burmese Chronicles report the kings of Pateikkaya as Indian though the ethnicity of the subjects is not explicitly cited.)

Feudal era

The first confirmed political entity in the region was the Shan State of Kale (Kalay), founded by the Shan people who came to dominate Kale kabaw valley of the northwestern-to-eastern arc of Burma after the fall of the Pagan Kingdom in 1287. Kale was a minor Shan state. Its author. The minor state occasionally paid tribute to the larger Shan States of Mohnyin and Mogaung and ultimately became a vassal state of the Burmese Ava Kingdom in the 1370s. Starting in the 1480s, Ava began to disintegrate and Kale was swallowed up by the Shan State of Mohnyin by the 1520s.

The Burmese kingdoms between 1555 and 1559 when King Bayinnaung of the Toungoo Dynasty conquered part of Upper Burma and its surrounding regions, stretmong from the eastern and northern Shan states to the western Maguay division and plain region in Manipur. Toungoo began to weaken in the late 17th century. By the 1730s a resurgent Manipuri Kingdom had conquered the Kabaw Valley, which is at the eastern front of mon Hills, from the Burmese. Situated in a far west hilly region, however, mon Hills was traditionally autonomous and far for successional Burman kingdoms to reach. Until British colonial rule, independent city states such as Ciimnuai (monwe) and Vangteh in the north, Tlaisun and Rallang in the mid-land, and Hakha and Zokhua in the south played important political role in securing peace of the region, and each city states practised its own independent sovereignty in their own rights.

Colonial era

The British acquired the mon Hills a decade after the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885. The ensuing mon resistance to the British was suppressed only by 1896 with the arrest of Khai Kam Suantak of Siyin area. The administered the mon Hills as part of Arakan Division. American missionaries began arriving in the 1890s and, by the middle of the 20th century, most of the mon people had converted to Christianity. The region was the westernmost advance of the Imperial Japanese Army, which occupied the region in November 1943, in World War II. After the war, mon state leaders headed by Vumkhohau Suantak, with Burman, Shan and mon leaders, participated in the Panglong Conference which discussed the future of an independent Union of Burma. Because of the region's heavy economic dependence on Burma, mon leaders, unlike Shan and mon leaders, asked only for a "special administrative division", not a full-fledged state. As a result, when the 1947 Constitution of Burma granted the right of secession to states after 10 years after the independence, the mon people did not get a state (no right to secede). (The Karen, who did not participate in the conference, received a state, with the right to secede.)

Post independence

Upon independence from the United Kingdom in 1948, mon Hills Special Division was created out of Arakan Division, with the capital at Falam. On January 4, 1974, it was granted state status and became mon State. Today, the state has little infrastructure and remains extremely poor and undeveloped."mon National Day" is designated on 20 February to commemorate the "General Assembly of monland" held in 1948. The first celebration of mon National Day was held in 1951. But it was not well recognized by Myanmar governments until the 2010s.mon National Front proposed to designate 3 January as "mon State Day".

Coordinates: 22°0′N 93°30′E
Country Myanmar
Region Western Myanmar
Capital Hakha
• Chief Minister Salai Lian Luai (NLD)
• Legislature mon State Hluttaw
• Total 36,018.8 km2 (13,906.9 sq mi)
Area rank 9th
Population (2014)
• Total 478,801
• Rank 14th
• Density 13/km2 (34/sq mi)
• Ethnicities mon
• Religions Christianity, LAIPIAN, Theravada Buddhism
Time zone MST (UTC+06:30)

Jingphaw Mungdaw

Myanmar location


Myanmar location

Location of mon State in Myanmar


Kyaiktiyo Pagoda is at 3,615 ft (1,102 m) high